Cadences: a point where harmonic movement comes to rest.

Phrase: a melody that ends in a cadence  

Perfect Authentic Cadence: has predominant, dominant, Tonic (in that order).  Dominant and Tonic must be in root position.  

Half Cadence: a phrase ending on the V of the key.

Prolongation: A Tonic, Pre-Dominant, or Dominant Chord extended over more bars/beats.    

Non-Harmonic tones:

-neighbor tone: one step from a harmonic tone 

-passing tone: a note situated stepwise between two harmonic tones  

-incomplete neighbor tone: approached by a leap, left by step or vice versa 

-double neighbor tone: two chromatic neighbor tones, in any direction 

-Suspension: a non-harmonic tone held, then resolved after the other voices

Harmonic embellishments: Chords that harmonize non-harmonic tones in one or more of the voices.  They add intricacy and color, but do not change the overall     harmonic direction.  

Pedal: holding one note, in one voice, for a significant period.