Cadences: a point where harmonic movement comes to rest.
Phrase: a melody that ends in a cadence
Perfect Authentic Cadence: has predominant, dominant, Tonic (in that order). Dominant and Tonic must be in root position.
Half Cadence: a phrase ending on the V of the key.
Prolongation: A Tonic, Pre-Dominant, or Dominant Chord extended over more bars/beats.
-neighbor tone: one step from a harmonic tone
-passing tone: a note situated stepwise between two harmonic tones
-incomplete neighbor tone: approached by a leap, left by step or vice versa
-double neighbor tone: two chromatic neighbor tones, in any direction
-Suspension: a non-harmonic tone held, then resolved after the other voices
Harmonic embellishments: Chords that harmonize non-harmonic tones in one or more of the voices. They add intricacy and color, but do not change the overall harmonic direction.
Pedal: holding one note, in one voice, for a significant period.